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Contents:
  1. Behavioral effects of ketamine and toxic interactions with psychostimulants
  2. Toxic interactions | InforMEA
  3. Natural toxins

Today's inspector general's report noted that the majority of new pesticide patent applications identified synergy between some of the most frequently used pesticides in the United States, including glyphosate, atrazine, 2,4-D, dicamba and multiple neonicotinoids.

Behavioral effects of ketamine and toxic interactions with psychostimulants

The information on synergy was found by the Center in publically available patents, but apparently the pesticide companies had not shared it with the EPA. The Center followed Donley's report with a petition to the EPA asking that the agency require information on pesticide synergy in pesticide-registration applications. That information was required by regulation from until , when the agency deleted the provision, calling it unnecessary. As a result, for the past 10 years the risks of synergistic combinations have been widely overlooked by the EPA in its approval of pesticides for food, lawns and everyday products.

Arch Environ Health. Respiratory effects of exposure to ozone plus sulfur dioxide in Southern Californians and Eastern Canadians. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. Human exposure to sulfur dioxide and ozone: absence of a synergistic effect. Combined effect of ozone and sulfuric acid on pulmonary function in man. SO2-particulate interactions: recent observations. Am J Ind Med. Epidemic malathion poisoning in Pakistan malaria workers. The toxicological properties of impurities in malathion. Arch Toxicol.

S-Methyl isomer content of stored malathion and fenitrothion water-dispersible powders and its relationship to toxicity. J Agric Food Chem. Modification of methylmercury toxicity and metabolism by selenium and vitamin E: possible mechanisms. Selenium and mercury in foodstuff from a locality with elevated intake of methylmercury. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. Correlation between selenium and mercury in man following exposure to inorganic mercury. Mercury and selenium concentrations and their interrelations in organs from dental staff and the general population.

Br J Ind Med. The relationship of ingested iron to the absorption of mercuric oxide. Am J Emerg Med. The influence of iron deficiency on tissue content and toxicity of ingested lead in the rat.

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Toxic interactions | InforMEA

J Lab Clin Med. Effects of iron deficiency on the absorption and distribution of lead and cadmium in rats. Interrelationships between iron and lead absorption in iron-deficient mice. Nutritional factors and susceptibility to lead toxicity. Effect of excess Fe on Cd or Pb absorption by rats. J Toxicol Environ Health. Effect of food intake on blood lead concentration in workers occupationally exposed to lead. Toxicol Lett.

Drug interactions

Oral absorption of lead and iron. Iron status of children with elevated blood lead concentrations. J Pediatr. Association of erythrocyte protoporphyrin with blood lead level and iron status in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Environ Res. The effect of mixed exposure to lead and zinc on ALA level in urine. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. The relationship between iron and lead absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. The influence of orally-administered vitamin C or zinc on the absorption of and the biological response to lead.

Discussion Oil and Dispersant Exposure Levels The concentration of crude oil in marine environments after oil spills is highly variable, ranging from a few ppb to hundreds of ppm, depending on many different factors, such as temporal and spatial scales, marine topography and hydrodynamics, and the magnitude of the spill accident. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Crude Oil in Zooplankton Our results support previous studies that found zooplankton are especially vulnerable to acute crude oil pollution, showing increased mortality and sublethal alterations of physiological activities, e.

Effect of Dispersant and Dispersant Treated Oil Laboratory studies have found that Corexit dispersants are toxic to marine benthic invertebrates and fishes, particularly eggs and early developmental stages [49] , [] — []. Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mesozooplankton We found that zooplankton can accumulate PAHs when exposed to oil, in agreement with previous studies [20] , [39] , [41] , [43] , [] — []. Influence of Experimental Conditions UV Exposure, Food in Crude Oil Toxicological and Bioaccumulation Studies Oil toxicity in marine organisms may vary widely depending on environmental variables, including temperature [38] , salinity [] , light [54] — [55] , and turbulence [].

Ecological Implications of the Interactions between Crude Oil and Zooplankton Impact of oil spills on planktonic communities depends on many physical, chemical and biological factors, and therefore the effects of oil pollution on zooplankton would vary depending on the circumstances of each spill accident [].

Main Conclusions Our experiments indicate zooplankton are especially vulnerable to acute crude oil exposure, showing increased mortality and sublethal alterations of physiological activities e. References 1. Banse K Zooplankton: Pivotal role in the control of ocean production. View Article Google Scholar 2. Can J Fish Aquat Sci Polar Biol — View Article Google Scholar 4. Walsh GE Toxic effects of pollutants on Plankton.

In: Butler GC, editor. Principles of Ecotoxicology.


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Mar Pollut Bull 93— View Article Google Scholar 6. Muschenheim DK, Lee K Removal of oil from the sea surface through particulate interactions: review and prospectus. Spill Sci Technol B 8: 9— View Article Google Scholar 7. Gray JS Biomagnification in marine systems: The perspective of an ecologist. Mar Pollut Bull 46— View Article Google Scholar 8.

Natural toxins

Environ Res Lett Environ Sci Technol — View Article Google Scholar In: Neilson A, Hutzinger O, editors. PAHs and Related Compounds.


  1. Background.
  2. Interactions of cyclodextrins and their derivatives with toxic organophosphorus compounds;
  3. Maoist insurgency since Vietnam.
  4. Mutation Res — In: Gledhill B, Mauro F, editors. Yu H Environmental carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: photochemistry and phototoxicity. J Toxicol Environ Health — Oil Chem Pollut 4: — Mukherjee B, Wrenn BA Influence of dynamic mixing energy on dispersant performance: role of mixing systems.

    Environ Eng Sci — Lichtenthaler RG, Daling PS Aerial application of dispersants-comparison of slick behavior of chemically treated versus non-treated slicks. J Fish Res Board Can — Mar Biol 7— Mar Pollut Bull — Ambio 8: — Hebert R, Poulet SA Effect of modification of particle size of emulsions of Venezuelan crude oil on feeding, survival and growth of marine zooplankton.

    Nunu Bot Special Interactions

    Mar Environ Res 4: — Gyllenburg G Ingestion and turnover of oil and petroleum hydrocarbons by 2 plankton copepods in the Gulf of Finland. Annls Zool Fennici — J Plankton Res — Longhurst AR Plankton diversity and vertical structure of the upper ocean. Deep-Sea Res — Cushing DH A difference in structure between ecosystems in strongly stratified waters and in those that are only weakly stratified. J Plankton Res 1: — Environ Toxicol Chem — Saiz E, Movilla J, Yebra L, Barata C, Calbet A Lethal and sublethal effects of naphthalene and 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene on naupliar and adult stages of the marine cyclopoid copepod Oithona davisae.

    Poll — J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 49— Environ Pollut — Calbet A, Saiz E, Barata C Letal and sublethal effects of naphthalene and 1,2 dimethylnaphthalene on the marine copepod Paracartia grani. Mar Biol — Seuront L Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod. PLoS One 6 10 : In: Ruivo M, editor. Mar Pollut Bull 8: — Acta Ecol Sin 8— Jiang Z, Huang Y, Chen Q, Zeng J, Xu X Acute toxicity of crude oil water accommodated fraction on marine copepods: the relative importance of acclimatization temperature and body size.


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    Mar Environ Res 12—7. In: Wolfe DA, editor. Lotufo GR Bioaccumulation of sediment-associated fluoranthene in benthic copepods: uptake, elimination and biotransformation. Aquat Toxicol 1— Ecotoxicol Environ Saf — Nelson-Smith A Biological consequences of oil pollution and shore-cleansing. Fld Stud 2 suppl. Wilson DP Long term effects of low concentrations of an oil-spill remover 'detergent' : Studies with the larvae of Sabellaria spinulosa. Wat Res 7: — Lewis A, Aurand D Putting dispersants to work: overcoming obstacles.

    Petroleum Inst. Chemosphere — Spill Sci Technol B 6: 59— Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 1— Arch Environ Contam Toxicol — Photochem Photobiol — Calbet A The trophic roles of microzooplankton in marine systems.