- Modern Tibetan Language Volume I ((With Transliteration))
- 07 Modern Tibetan Language Volume 1
Discussions of contemporary issues in Tibetan society might also be added to this list of themes, as evidenced in Don grub rgyal's Sad kyis bcom pa'i me tog "Frostbitten Flower" published in A Growing Book Industry. The unprecedented production of journals, literary and academic, had its parallel in the book industry, but with an important qualification.
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Many of the books first released in the late s and early s were reprints of editions drafted or even published in the s. Link has remarked on this "revival" quality of cultural production in the post-Mao period The literary-bureaucratic system that was revived in the late s was, in important respects, the one that had been built in the s by borrowing from a Soviet model and that had lasted in China until the mids.
Link identifies the leviathan network by which writing was officially published in the PRC from to as "the socialist Chinese literary system. Its publications were printed by the Central Nationalities Printing House43 which had opened two years earlier. Sichuan and Gansu provinces had their. While Tibetan society had fewer cultural institutions to restore, Link's "revival" — model holds true to a surprising degree for Tibetan publishing projects undertaken after the Cultural Revolution.
A general survey of publications for the purpose of my dissertation made me aware of this intriguing phenomenon. As Table 2 demonstrates, many Tibetan books published in the late s and early s were actually reprints or revised editions of texts published, or at least drafted, before the Cultural Revolution.
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These were the "drawer literature" of Tibetan scholars. Though the following list is not comprehensive, the number of classical orthographies and grammars, not to mention classical Tibetan texts, operas, folklore and studies of traditional poetry, provides evidence of cultural initiatives in the s that went far beyond the demands of political propaganda.
Furthermore, this list serves as evidence of a "revival" in Tibetan cultural production immediately following the Eleventh Party Congress of December While Table 2 focuses on books that were first printed or drafted in the s in order to illustrate the "revival" quality of publishing in the early post- Mao period , many first edition publications from also had a traditional or historical cast. For example, episodes from the Gesar epic were prevalent among the books released in the immediate post-Mao period.
These must have been popular, as nearly every title was soon reprinted for an average total print run of 50, copies. Indeed, I have been told that some Tibetan entrepreneurs especially nomads made significant profits by re-selling copies of the Gesar epic in areas with no official Xinhua bookstores. The Gesar project also had its seeds in the pre-Cultural Revolution era.
For example, the first episode published by the Qinghai Nationalities Publishing House — The Battle between Hor and Ling — was edited by the renowned scholars Tshe tan zhabs drung and Dge bshes Gsung rab rgya mtsho in the early s. The wealth of his household was confiscated and the family faced great hardship. Table 2. The dates of several scholars were obtained from the online database of The Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center at www. Gsung rab rgya mtsho was exonerated only in ,47 three years before his death in Tshe tan zhabs drung was also arrested on the eve of the Cultural Revolution.
After spending more than thirteen years under house arrest, he was finally exonerated in and invited to teach at Northwest Nationalities Institute in Lanzhou, Gansu Province. Indeed, the revival in Tibetan publishing had as much to do with individuals as it did with institutions per se. Many of the authors or editors of the books listed in Table 2 were monastically trained Tibetan scholars who were employed in translation teams in the s but arrested in the mids.
These include Tshe tan zhabs drung, Gsung rab rgya mtsho, Shar gdong Rinpoche, Dmu dge bsam gtan, to name only a few.
Modern Tibetan Language Volume I ((With Transliteration))
When exonerated and released after the Cultural Revolution, they were asked to resume teaching posts or were newly appointed to Tibetan programs at nationality institutes across the PRC in the late s. Fascinating details of the early translation teams can be found in the autobiography of 'Jam dpal rgya mtsho 2OOO ,50 who worked for nearly thirty years as a translator at the Nationalities Publishing House in Beijing before transferring in January to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences CASS ,51 where he eventually served as director of the Gesar Research Institute.
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Though the author attributes the publication of his own novel Skal bzang me tog12 to the more open political and cultural environment fostered by the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Party Congress in , the original Chinese version was published only in and the Tibetan edition in In his autobiography, 'Jam dpal rgya mtsho also details the initiatives taken by Tibetan writers and other scholars to increase Tibetan cultural production in accord with the flexibility allowed by the Congress and in keeping with literary and other artistic developments elsewhere in the country.
While scholars played a major role in founding key newspapers in the s, they were not active in this arena during the post-Mao period. Many shied away from official or political projects, and newspapers were almost wholly the organs of the party or related offices. The role of these papers in furthering the Four Modernizations cannot be ignored. Newspapers focused on science and technology, construction, and law dominate the titles launched in the early s. In Lhasa, where the Tibet Daily had been operating since , the increase was particularly dramatic see Table 3.
Papers in other large towns of the TAR tended to be launched only later; e. Gzhis ka rtseH tshags par Shigatse Newspaper , f. Aside from the official provincial newspapers, smaller local newspapers have been started only recently outside the TAR. Reb gong Ch. Tongren , for example, has long been a vital Tibetan cultural center but only launched a local Tibetan paper in Table 3. As mentioned above, literary columns in these newspapers were the first venues for Tibetan writers experimenting in their own language.
The Tibet Daily, for example, was an important project among others that furthered the vernacularization of the written Tibetan language. At the same time, the paper did not directly foster the growth of a new Tibetan literature until the end of the s when its first literary column was added: "Smyug gsar" New Pen or Fresh Bud. If a anthology of short stories and essays drawn from newspapers is any indication, however, Tibetan papers did not publish many creative pieces until and 1.
Starting in , young staff from the Chinese and Tibetan papers were selected and sent for study and professional development at universities and secondary schools in Shanghai, Beijing, Chongqing, Chengdu, Shenyang, and Nanjing. The office has utilized the writings of more than writers in Chinese and writers in Tibetan.
By the mids, the print run for the Tibetan edition had reached nearly 20,, and nearly 30, for the Chinese edition. It has been my purpose to temper the idea that heralded a new era in publishing with the same brilliance seen in the Chinese context. While political documents continued to be translated from Chinese into Tibetan, and many educational works including basic scientific textbooks on weather or electricity started to be translated in the late s, classical works and instruction on classical grammar and literature constituted a large portion of Tibetan publishing in the immediate post-Mao period.
At the same time, the revival did not include religious or shastric titles, which were scarce until Literary anthologies or single-authored works were also rare in this early period; and translations of foreign literature were available mainly through literary magazines, not in published anthologies. The Tibetan publishing industry and modern Tibetan literature expanded more rapidly only in the late s with a burgeoning of regional Tibetan literary magazines outside of the TAR. Worthy of further study is the question of what happened in 1 when the Chinese government began to privatize the media.
One effect of government subsidy cuts was to greatly weaken the "Chinese socialist literary system" and to reduce the proportion of Tibetan publishing integrated in the national infrastructure. Note that only three unofficial magazines were launched in the early s see Table 2. This number grew but mainly due to school or student-sponsored projects with intermittent publications. By contrast, in the mids, even local official magazines had to seek outside funding and monasteries began to resume their role as important centers of cultural production.
07 Modern Tibetan Language Volume 1
Dozens of religious institutions in the northeast region of Amdo started to launch their respective literary and even social magazines. Despite the plethora of new magazines, newspapers continue to play an important role in featuring the works of young writers. For some editors, literary feature sections have proved to be a mechanism for buttressing rapidly falling subscription rates. Finally, the monolithic reach of the national publishing system was further weakened in the late s as writers sought alternative publishing venues in Hong Kong and Taiwan, or through local private printing houses.
London: Verso, . Translated by L. Lungta 9 , pp. Dharamsala: Tibet Times. Bod kyi rtsom rigsgyu rtsal, , no. Catalogue of Chinese Publications in Tibetan Studies Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, Sbrang char, , no. Beijing: China Statistical Press. Don grub rgyal aka Drag btsan rang grol. Drag btsan rang grol aka Don grub rgyal. Indiana University Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House. After Mao: Chinese Literature and Society, However, the rule to learn a language, or a craft, or playing the guitar, or painting, is to spend minutes every day or more on it.
This is far better than a huge vacation effort that is then forgotten later. This constant pattern recognition will create the needed causes for you to learn it. This, and especially helping someone else out with teaching them a language, a craft, and so on. Jim Carrol p. Mead was already world renowned, as famous for her social activism as for her cultural anthropology.
I was a newly minted assistant professor of economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. One snowy night in Cambridge, I went to hear Mead lecture at Harvard. Afterward, I introduced myself, and we talked. I had become interested in extraordinary collaborations, the process whereby Great Groups are able to accomplish so much more than talented people working alone. I told Mead that I was interested in writing a book on how networks of gifted people have changed the world.
You should call it Sapiential Circles. The concept and term "sapiential circle" was further refined by Houston in either , or That was where I first encountered the term. Mead was a mentor of Houston. This learning initiative is a sapiential circle embedded within the Internet which is also a sapiential circle. Wikiversity and Wikipedia and other such projects are interpenetrating sapiential circles. A sapiential circle is a learning community engaged in the teaching, learning and the continuity of teachings and learnings.
source link Every sapiential circle will have specifics skills inherent embedded in the experience of constituents and these may be discoverable either through working together naturally or through a possible skills audit of the specific group, for example. Learning that is of value is not just that which develops our bright side, but also our murk side.
The bright side is things we are naturally gifted in and find easy and the murk side are areas in our life experience where learnings and activity are particularly challenging. With the modern resource of the Internet, creativity and dedication we may learn and teach many things. Now the following sounds like a lot of work but if we work together and train and entrain our efficiency it isn't and will not be. Therefore, communication is imperative. This is why we must all employ our weblogs. Reflective learning is key.